We offer genetic tests in the direction of the familial, hereditarily conditioned tendencies of malignant cancer. The tests are performed in cooperation with the International Hereditary Cancer Centre in Szczecin under the leadership of Professor Jan Lubiński.
What is the hereditary tendency of cancer?
Hereditary predisposition to developing cancer is called a situation in which family members have so-called genetic mutations which are the changes of correct genetic material, resulting in a greater risk of developing a specific disease such as cancer, for example breast cancer.
How often do the genetic mutations appear?
Mutations, which are DNA defects, appear in cells of the body almost constantly, but the vast majority of them is repaired by the human organism. Only a few mutations remain unrepaired and result in tumour development. The mutations extremely rarely involve the damage to reproductive cells, and thus can be transmitted to offspring.
Are genetic mutations responsible for all cancers?
Every cancer is caused by a mutation of a cell, which then divides in an uncontrolled manner to form tumours. However, usually such a mutation comes to being during the life of the organism, concerns only certain cells (e.g. breast) and is not hereditary. However, some people have the mutation present from conception in each cell, and it is likely that it will reveal itself to form malignant cancer. Such a mutation is called hereditary or terminal.
Is hereditary mutation responsible for every cancer?
Until now, it has been proven that only a small percentage of some cancers are caused by an hereditary mutation. In the case of breast cancer, this rate is one of the highest and reaches even 30%, according to some researchers. It should be remembered that in the case of the vast majority of cancer the hereditary reason for the disease has not been found.
Will I find out if I develop cancer by performing a genetic test?
Genetic test can determine what your risk of developing particular cancer is. The mutations in certain genes cause the probability of cancer increase up to 100% (e.g. familial adenomatous polyposis colorectal, FAP). BRCA1 gene mutation increases the risk of breast cancer 10-fold and ovarian cancer even 25-fold! In contrast, other mutations increase cancer risk by only 2-3 fold, compared with the population risk. We should also be aware that a negative test result does not mean that the risk of cancer associated with tested mutation is zero. It results from multigene pathogenesis of cancer.
Will I find out by performing a genetic test what the risk of all types of cancers is for me?
The doctor working in genetic clinic makes an appointment for the test for gene mutations, whose presence is suspected in a family based on family medical history. Another study will be appointed if he suspects for example colorectal cancer and the other when breast or ovarian cancer is suspected. Genetic studies are still relatively expensive and often time-consuming, therefore the tests for all possible mutations are not carried out.