Ultrasound examination of young children is a test demanding the quality equipment and an experienced physician. The most frequent examinations performed in young patients are:
– hip joint ultrasonography – the examination is performed to enable early detection of hip dysplasia, which, if left untreated at an early stage, can lead to faulty posture, walking problems and mobility impairments. The ultrasound should be performed as a screening test in ALL infants. The first test should be performed between 4 and 6 weeks of child’s age, the next one between 5 and 6 month of child’s age. The examination takes about 15 minutes and is completely painless.
– transfontanelle ultrasonography – the examination is recommended for children born prematurely, after severe or instrumental birth, with low birth weight, a history of perinatal hypoxia, with impaired skull development (e.g. too large or too small head), with neurological disorders, with the suspicion of hydrocephalus and other malformations of the central nervous system. The test takes about 15 minutes, is completely safe and painless.
– abdominal and lesser pelvis ultrasonography – the examination is recommended for all children once a year, especially if a child has constipation, diarrhoea, urinary tract infections, bed wetting, flatulence when there is the suspicion of urinary tract defects (vesicoureteral reflux, extended pelvis-calyx network) in children with low weight gain, children born prematurely, children with umbilical hernia and in children when there is the suspicion of genetic defects.
Children, like adults, may also have the following examinations performed: thyroid ultrasonography (e.g. in the case of familial underactive or overactive thyroid gland), testicular ultrasonography (in the cases of suspected hydroceles, inguinal hernia, the absence of testes in the scrotum), salivary glands ultrasonography and neck lymph nodes ultrasonography (in the case of salivary gland inflammation, suspected mumps, enlarged neck lymph nodes).