Abdominal, thyroid USG
To perform abdominal ultrasound, we use high frequency sound waves, inaudible to human ears, ranging from 1 to 10 MHz. They are safe, as opposed to X-rays.
If you are referred for abdominal ultrasound, you should not eat heavy meals and the meals that trigger excessive gas production for a few days before the date of the examination, because they may blur the image. In the evening preceding the examination, it is worth using mild laxative agent which will allow the physician to obtain a more accurate picture of the examined structures. On the day of the ultrasound examination it is better to be on an empty stomach. If you have your examination in the afternoon, eat light breakfast and take the medicine reducing the production of intestinal gases (e.g. Espumisan).
Immediately before the examination, you should not smoke. An hour or one and a half before entering the examination room you should drink at least a litre of non-carbonated mineral water or unsweetened tea so that during an ultrasound your bladder was filled (you should feel pressure on your bladder). Before the test, you must uncover a particular abdomen area, which your doctor cover with a special lubricant gel before applying the head of the ultrasonograph. By moving the ultrasonograph head, the doctor receives the whole picture of the examined organ. Abdominal ultrasound enables the observation of the internal organs and their work.
The examination provides information about the structure of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, bladder, ureters, uterus, adnexa and extraperitoneal space which is a system of large lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes of the abdominal cavity. The examination is painless. It should also be performed prophylactically every 1-2 years because it allows to detect the changes that do not give any symptoms.
Thyroid ultrasound test is the primary imaging examination of the thyroid. Modern ultrasound equipment enables the detailed visualization of even very small changes in the thyroid. The ultrasound allows the assessment of thyroid size, the structure of thyroid tissue (which may be changing in some thyroid diseases), as well as the size, quantity, nature of thyroid tumours and the evaluation of enlarged lymph nodes. The ultrasound examination is necessary for precise biopsy of the thyroid. Ultrasound examination is an important test but it does not allow for giving a full diagnosis. This mainly applies to focal lesions. Often a biopsy is needed in addition. It is performed if the thyroid ultrasound images suggest features that indicate an increased risk of malignancy.
Ultrasonographic features indicating the risk of malignancy in thyroid:
- microcalcifications in the nodule
- Solid, hypoechogenic nodule structure
- Irregular, lobular borders
- Suspicious, enlarged lymph nodes
- Increased blood flow within the nodule
The ultrasonographic examination should be performed by an experienced person on the equipment that meets the latest standards. Documentation should be supplemented with thyroid ultrasound images with the changes in it if discovered.